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Vakterminologie CD en DVD fabricage / producten

Wij gaan er van uit dat de meeste termen die in de
context van CD en DVD productie gebruikt worden Engelstalig
zijn en veroorloven ons onderstaande tabel te begrenzen
tot Engelstalige uitdrukkingen.


American National Standards Institute. Publishes industry
standards for a wide range of technologies.
What you do to create an application that may eventually
be stored on CD. For example, if you wish to create
a multimedia game or presentation, you will need authoring
software that allows you to combine sound, graphics,
and text, and provides some user interactivity. When
you have finished creating your application with authoring
software, you can use CD recording software such as
Easy CD Creator or Adaptec Toast to write it to CD.
Auto-Insert Notification
A feature of Windows 95 and Windows NT that causes
an audio CD to be played or an application disc to
launch an application (for some discs) as soon as the
disc is mounted in a CD drive. With earlier CD-R software
it was recommended that this feature be turned off,
but with Easy CD Creator and Direct CD it is preferable
to leave it on. This setting must be made for each
CD unit separately; in Windows 95 it can be made in
Control Panel – System – Device Manager – CD-ROM (your
CD-ROM drive) Settings.

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A unique code for any manufactured unit. With recordable
CDs, this number is often printed in the clear inner
ring of the disc. Some CD recorders can also read
this information digitally.
Bit Depth
In color images, the number of colors used to represent
the image. Typical values are 8-, 16-, and 24-bit color,
allowing 256, 65,536 and 16,777,216 colors to be represented.
The latter is known as true color, because 16.8 million
different colors is about as many as the human eye
can distinguish.
An acronym for Basic Input/Output System. This is usually
an EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) chip
with computer program instructions in it. A motherboard
BIOS (usually by companies such as Phoenix, Award and
AMI) controls the basic functions of the computer (such
as controlling the keyboard, monitor, on board controllers

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CD-R discs written that can be read in either a
CD-DA player or in a CD-ROM reader.
CD Extra or CD Plus
A multi-session disc containing a number of audio
tracks in the first session, and one CD-ROM XA data
track in the second session. Additional characteristics
are defined in the Blue Book standard. This is an alternative
to mixed-mode for combining standard CD-DA audio (which
can be played in a normal audio player), and a computer
application, on a single disc.
(AKA karaoke) A special disc format in which simple
graphics and text are stored in the subchannels of
an audio disc, but you need a special player to read
and display this information. The data in the subchannels
cannot be copied with most current systems or software.
Compact Disc-Digital Audio. Jointly developed by
Philips and Sony and launched in the U.S. in October,
1982, CD-DA was the first incarnation of the compact
disc, used to digitally record and play back music
at unprecedented quality. The standard under which
CD-DA discs are recorded is known as the Red Book Standard.
A compact disc format developed by Philips, designed
to allow interactive multimedia applications to be
played through a computer/disc player attached to a
television. Especially good for real-time animation,
video, and sound, the CD-I standard is called the Green
Compact disc-recordable. Same as CD-WO when referring
to recordable discs (media), often used to refer to
write-once discs, in contrast to CD-RW, or Compact
Disc Re-Writable.
Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. A standard for compact
disc to be used as a digital memory medium for personal
computers. The specifications for CD-ROM were first
defined in the Yellow Book.
“XA” stands for Extended Architecture.
CD-ROM XA is an extension of the Yellow Book standard,
generally consistent with the ISO 9660 logical format
but designed to add better audio and video capabilities
(taken from the CD-I standard) so that CD-ROM could
more easily be used for multimedia applications. CD-ROM
XA was abandoned as an independent multimedia format.
CD-ROM XA is also the physical format for Photo CD
CD recordable media that can be erased and re-recorded
up to 1000 times. CD-RW media can only be written in
a CD-RW recorder, not in a normal CD recorder, though
a CD-RW recorder can also record standard CD-R discs.
An audio CD format in which up to 5000 characters
of disc information (title, artist, song titles, etc.)
is written into the disc Table of Contents. This information
is displayed when the disc is played back on CD Text-enabled
audio players.
Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code. The first
level of error correction used in every compact disc,
and the only one used for audio CDs.
Close Disc
To “close” a recordable disc so that
no further data can be written to it. This is done
when the last session’s lead-in is written. The next
writeable address on the disc is not recorded
in that lead-in, so the CD recorder in subsequent attempts
to write has no way of knowing where to begin writing.
Note: It is NOT necessary to close a disc in order
to read it in a normal CD-ROM drive. Easy CD Audio
because it is single session, Red Book, it automatically
closes the disc, there is the option to close the session
and leave the disc open for adding more session. Note
only mutilsession CD Devices can read the add-on sessions.
Almost all standard audio players cannot.

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Digital Audio Tape.
A method of writing CDs in which one or more tracks
are written in a single operation, and the disc is
closed, without ever turning off the writing laser.
Contrast with Track-at-Once. Not all CD recorders support
This writing mode is especially useful for creating
a master disc that you will send off to a replicator
for mass production. In Disc-at-Once mode, the whole
disc – Lead-in, Data, and Lead-out areas are written
starting from the beginning of the disc to the end
of the disc without ever turning off the recording
laser. With Track-at-Once and Track Multi-session,
the data area is written first, then the Lead-out area,
then the Lead-in area; each time turning off the recording
laser to jump to the next area. Each time the recording
laser is turned off and on, link blocks are created
on the disc. These link blocks “link” tracks
with the Lead-in and Lead-out areas. However, these
link blocks are interpreted as “uncorrectable
errors” on most mastering systems at the replication
plant. Writing in Disc-at-Once mode eliminates the
link blocks because the recording laser never turns
off. Disc-at-Once requires the pre-mastering software
to send a “cue sheet” to the CD-R drive that
describes the disc layout. From there, the CD-R drive
accepts the data and begins writing the Lead-in with
the Table of Contents (TOC), the actual data, and the
Lead-out in that order, without interruption. Disc-at-Once
creates a single session disc only.
Disc Image
A single large file that is an exact representation
of the whole set of data and programs as it will appear
on a CD, in terms of both content and logical format.
This may be an ISO 9660 image (adhering strictly to
the ISO 9660 standard), or some proprietary format
such as the .cif format used by Easy CD Creator.

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Error Correction Code. A system of scrambling data
and recording redundant data onto disc as it is recorded.
During playback, this redundant information helps
to detect and correct errors that may arise during
data transmission.

A graphic file format specifically used to transfer
PostScript based data within compatible applications.
Usually created by drawing tools such as Adobe Illustrator,
an artist can transport curves, paths, spot colors
and graphics into PageMaker or QuarkXpress.
In Illustrator
you would use File > Save As > EPS.

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File System
A data structure that translates the physical (sector)
view of a disc into a logical (files, directories)
structure, which helps both computers and users locate
files. In other words, it records where files and
directories are located on the disc. Reference Logical

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The gap (more correctly called a pause) is a space
dividing tracks. In some situations a gap is required
by the standards (Red Book and other “color” books).
For example, if you have data and audio tracks within
the same session, they must be separated by a gap.
Also, there must be a gap of 2 to 3 seconds preceding
the first track on a disc.
The gap which “belongs” to a track is actually
the gap before it, not the one after it. This is why
on some audio CD players you will see a countdown (-02,
-01, etc.) before a track begins. It is counting down
to the next track, not counting up from the end of
the last one.
Gold Disc (CD-R Media not Gold ROM’s)
The recordable disc used in recordable CD systems.
The blank disc is made of a bottom layer of polycarbonate,
with a preformed track spiral that the recording laser
follows when inscribing information onto the disc.
This type of disc is therefore also called pre-grooved.
A translucent layer of recordable material is laid
on top of the polycarbonate, then a reflective layer
of gold. On top, there are thin layers of lacquer and

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The file system used by the Macintosh operating system
to organize data on hard and floppy disks. Can also
be used for CD-ROMs.

Under the Orange Book standard for recordable CD, hybrid
means a recordable disc on which one or more sessions
are already recorded, but the disc is not closed, leaving
space open for future recording. However, in popular
use the term “hybrid” often refers to a disc
containing both DOS/Windows and Macintosh software,
which on a DOS/Windows platform is seen as a normal
ISO 9660 disc, while on a Mac it appears as an HFS

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ISO 9660 Format
An international standard specifying the logical format
for files and directories on a CD-ROM or CD-ROM image.
format. Some other common logical formats such as Joliet
(for Windows) and Rock Ridge are extensions of ISO
International Standard Recording Code. Some recorders
allow the ISRC to be recorded for each audio track
on a disc. The code is made up of: Country Code (2
ASCII characters), Owner Code (3 ASCII characters),
Year of Recording (2 digits), Serial Number (5 digits).

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Jewel Case
The hinged plastic case in which most CDs are often
Jewel Case Sleeve (commonly known as “booklet”)
The pieces of paper which can be inserted into the
jewel case to help identify the contents of the CD
stored in the case. The sleeve on the front is called
the booklet, the sleeve in the back is the bottomcard
Joliet is an extension of the ISO 9660 standard, developed
by Microsoft to allow CDs to be recorded using long
filenames, and using the Unicode international character
set. Joliet allows you to use filenames up to 64 characters
in length, including spaces.

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An area at the beginning of each session on a recordable
compact disc which is left blank for the session’s
Table of Contents(track numbers and start points).
The lead-in is written when a session is closed,
and takes up 4500 sectors on disc (1 minute, or roughly
9 megabytes). The lead-in also contains the next
writeable address on the disc, (indicates whether
the disc is MultiSession) so that future sessions
can be added (unless the disc is closed).
An area at the end of a session which indicates that
the end of the data has been reached, there is no actual
data written in the lead-out. The first lead-out on
a disc is 6750 sectors (1.5 minutes, about 13 megabytes)
long; any subsequent lead-outs are 2250 sectors (.5
minute, about 4 megabytes).

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Technically, refers to the process of creating a glass
master from which compact discs will be reproduced
in quantity. In desktop recordable CD systems, mastering
is done together with pre-mastering by the desktop
CD recorder, and the term is generally used to mean “recording.”
Mixed-Mode Disc
A compact disc including both computer data and CD-DA
tracks. The data is all contained in Track 1, and the
audio in one or more following tracks.
MMC (Multi Media Command)
A standard command set used by some CD recorders. Many
newer recorders follow this standard, though many of
them also interpret it differently (so there are still
differences in how software must address these recorders,
despite the standard).
There are two recording modes for compact discs. In
Mode 1, used with CD-ROM applications, 288 bytes of
each sector are used for storing error correction code,
and the remaining 2048 bytes per sector are available
for user data. Mode 2, used in CD-I and CD-ROM XA,
has two forms: Form 1 is similar to Mode 1, as it is
also used to record data that requires error correction;
Form 2 is used for recording information such as sound
or images which do not require such extreme precision.
Since less error correction is needed, more bytes in
the sector can be freed for information storage, resulting
in a data area of 2336 bytes per sector.
Mode 1
A somewhat inaccurate way of referring to the CD-ROM
physical format.
Mode 2
A not-quite-accurate but common way of referring to
the CD-ROM XA physical format.
To install a compact disc so that the computer recognizes
its presence and can read data from it.
MP3 is a scheme for compressing audio. MP3 files do
not maintain the quality of audio CD tracks, and cannot
be recorded directly to CD as standard audio tracks.
They can be recorded as data tracks and played back
via your computer using appropriate player software.
Motion Picture Experts Group, whose name has been applied
to the standards (MPEG 1 and MPEG 2) promulgated by
the group for compression of full-motion video.
An OSTA standard for CD-ROM and DVD-ROM drives. Drives
which follow the MultiRead standard can read commercial
CDs (audio and data), CD-R discs, and CD-RW discs.
They can also read discs written in fixed- or variable-length
packets. For more information, see MultiRead Specification
from OSTA. Note: Drives containing the MultiRead logo
that have been issued by Hewlett-Packard have been
tested for compliance with the MultiRead specification.
Drives labeled as “multi-read” (without the
logo) probably have not been tested for compliance
with the specification, and may not be able to read
CD-RW or packet-written discs.
The Orange Book specification which allows more than
a single session to be recorded or read on a CD-ROM
or CD-ROM XA disc. A method of adding data incrementally
to a CD in more than one recording session. If data
is linked between sessions, all data on a multisession
disc, when read on a multisession CD-ROM drive, may
be seen as part of a single logical structure. Multisession
is very different from packet writing.
The ability to record more than a single track on a
disc. Track numbers are from 1 to 99. They continue
to increment across session boundaries. For example,
if session 1 used tracks 1 to 4, session 2 would start
at track 5. Track numbers may start at any value, but
must be incremented sequentially on the disc.
A disc containing multiple sessions which are not linked
together, so that each “volume” on the disc
must be read as if it were a separate disc. You can
read different sessions on a disc using the Session
Selector in Easy CD Creator Deluxe.

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On the Fly
To write on the fly means to write directly from source
data to CD data without first writing a disc image
Same as Write Direct.

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Photo CD
A compact disc format based on the CD-ROM XA, Orange
Book and CD-I Bridge specification.
Physical Format
The physical format of a compact disc determines how
data is recorded in each sector. The various physical
formats are defined by the color book standards (Red
Book, Yellow Book, etc.)
A space dividing tracks, recorded within the track
data area at its end. The post- gap is 150 sectors
(2 seconds) long and is required only where successive
tracks are of different types. However, because many
disc replicators expect a post-gap at the end of every
track and may erroneously strip out data sectors if
they do not find one, Adaptec software recording in
Track-at-Once mode (default) records a post-gap after
every track.
A space dividing tracks, recorded before the track
data area. The length of the pre-gap varies with the
CD recorder and the types of tracks. Where successive
tracks are both of data, one track is separated from
another by a track pre-gap of 150 sectors (2 seconds).
Where successive tracks are of different types, the
pre-gap is usually of 225 sectors (or three seconds).
If two successive tracks are audio, there may be no
pre-gap at all.
The technical process of preparing data to be recorded
(mastered) onto a compact disc. This includes dividing
the data into sectors (logical blocks) and recording
those sectors with the appropriate header (address)
and error correction information. In the case of recordable
CD systems, premastering and mastering are done in
one operation, resulting in a ready-to-read compact

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Random Erase
(Available with CD-RW discs and Direct CD 2.0). The
ability to erase a single file at a time from a CD-ReWritable
disc, freeing up disc space for immediate re-use,
just as you would do on a hard or floppy disk.
Recordable Disc
The media used in recordable CD systems. The blank
disc is made of a bottom layer of polycarbonate, with
a preformed track spiral which the recording laser
follows when inscribing information onto the disc.
A translucent layer of recordable material is laid
on top of the polycarbonate, then a reflective layer
(gold or silver colored). On top there is a thin layer
of lacquer and sometimes a printed label. The standard
recordable disc is “write-once” — it cannot
be erased or re-used. For erasable discs, see CD-RW.
Or duplication. Making multiple copies of a compact
Fineness of detail. In computer monitors it is measured
in pixels horizontal x vertical (usually) or in pixels
per inch.

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The smallest recordable unit on a CD. A disc can contain
[(75 sectors per second) x (60 seconds per minute)
x (number of minutes on disc)] sectors. The amount
of data contained in the sector depends on what physical
format it is recorded in; for “regular” CD-ROM
(Mode 1) data, you can fit 2048 bytes (2 kilobytes)
of data into a sector.
Sequential Erase
(Available with CD-RW discs.) Erasing the entire disc
so that it can be re-used.
As defined in the Orange Book, a recorded segment of
a compact disc that may contain one or more tracks
of any type (data or audio). In data recording, there
is usually only one track per session. In audio recording,
all audio tracks are contained in a single session.
A lead-in and lead-out are recorded for every session
on a disc.
Session-at-Once is a subset of Disc-at-Once, used for
CD Extra. In Session-at-Once recording, a first session
containing multiple audio tracks is recorded in a single
pass, then the laser is turned off, but the disc is
not closed. Then a second (data) session is written
and closed.
Silver Disc (Stamped)
A disc that is mastered by a stamping process. It is
read-only and cannot be modified.
Single Session
The smallest collection of information that can be
read by a CD-ROM compatible device. It contains the
ISO 9960 file structure and files. A single session
can contain a single track or multiple tracks. Contrast
MultiSession and MultiTrack.

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Every time you write to CD, you will create at least
one track, which is preceded by a gap. Any session
may contain one or more tracks, and the tracks within
a session may be of the same or of different types
(for example, a mixed-mode disc contains data and audio
tracks). Using the Cue Sheet you can record more than
one track in a single writing. Packet Recording is
the only smaller unit recording.
A method of writing data to disc. Each time a track
(data or audio) is completed, the recording laser is
stopped, even if another track will be written immediately
afterwards. Link and run blocks are written when the
laser is turned on and off.
Track Multi-Session
This write mode is very similar to Track at Once. In
the Multi-session environment, each “session” must
contain at least one track. Again, the size of the
track must be at least 300 blocks. Track Multi-session,
as you have probably guessed, allows you to incrementally
add tracks to a disc. (Not to be confused with Incremental
Writing) Each session will take up about 13.5Mb of
disc space in overhead; what is called Lead-in and
Lead-out areas. So it does not make sense to record
small amounts of data (less than 50Mb), because each
time a write is performed, 13.5Mb of capacity on the
disc is lost. Since the disc can only be written to
99 times, this is important to factor).

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Universal Disc Format. A file system endorsed by OSTA
(the Optical Storage Technology Association) for
use with packet writing and other recordable optical
disc technologies, such as DVD.
Universal Product Code. With some CD recorders, you
may define a thirteen-digit UPC catalog number for
the entire disc, which will be written in the disc’s
Table of Contents. Also known as EAN.



Video CD
A standard for displaying full motion pictures with
associated audio on CD. The video and sound are compressed
together using the MPEG 1 standard, and recorded
onto a CD Bridge disc. A Video CD disc contains one
data track recorded in CD-ROM XA Mode 2 Form 2. It
is always the first track on the disc (Track 1).
The ISO 9660 file structure and a CD-I application
program are recorded in this track, as well as the
Video CD Information Area which gives general information
about the Video CD disc. After the data track, video
is written in one or more subsequent tracks within
the same session. These tracks are also recorded
in Mode 2 Form 2. The session is closed after all
tracks have been written.
Under the ISO 9660 standard, “volume” refers
to a single CD-ROM disc. However, “volume” is
often used to mean a session on a multisession disc,
which is not linked to other sessions.
Volume Descriptors
For an ISO 9660 disc, the Volume Descriptors are a
set of optional information fields recorded at the
beginning of the data area on the disc. They were originally
designed for the needs of CD-ROM publishers.

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Write Direct
Also called on the fly. Files are written directly
to the CD disc, however the ISO 9660 structures are
temporarily written to the hard disk.
Write First to HD
Also called ISO image. Everything is written to the
hard disk first. Contrast it to Write Direct.

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